A job interview is always one of the most important and perhaps stressful situations in everyone’s work life. Python programming interview is no exception to this rule. If you have just completed a Python programming course and want to start working in this field, sooner or later you will face this stage.
As you know, Python is one of the most popular programming languages today. The following are the most important reasons for Python’s popularity:
- Learning Python is easy for everyone, even those who have no prior knowledge of programming.
- Python programming language is one of those languages where a function can be executed with less code.
- The number of jobs in which Python programming is used is increasing exponentially.
- Due to artificial intelligence and machine learning becoming more prevalent in industries and even our daily lives, large companies and organizations around the world are looking to strengthen Python programming experts.
- Python programming jobs are among those jobs that have a very decent and high income.
All these reasons make Python a popular and competitive language. Due to the high interest of programmers in learning Python programming, as well as the increase in the hiring of Python experts and programmers by organizations and companies, this field has become a highly competitive field. This is where the importance of Python job interview becomes clear for you. Because the more successfully the interview is done, the more chances you have of getting hired in a prestigious and favorite company and as a result of earning a high salary.
In this article, a list of the most important Python job interview questions along with the answers has been compiled for you. The questions collected in this article are arranged from simple to advance. We suggest that you first answer each question without looking at the answer and then check your answer with the given answer.
Table of Contents
1. What is Python? What are the advantages of using Python?
Python is a high-level, interactive, object-oriented and interpreted programming language. The meaning of being interpreted is that, unlike other languages such as C, Python does not need to be compiled before execution. In addition, Python supports objects, modules, threads, error handling, and automatic memory management, which help model real-world problems and build applications to solve these problems.
2. How is memory management in Python?
Python uses private heap space for memory management. In fact, all objects and data structures are stored in the private stack space. Even the programmer cannot access this private space because the interpreter takes care of this space. Python also has a built-in garbage collector that recycles all unused memory and frees the memory, making it available on the heap.
3. What is PEP 8?
PEP 8 stands for Python Enhancement Proposal, a set of rules that specify how to write and design Python code for maximum readability.
4. What is the difference between Mutable datatype and Immutable datatype?
Mutable datatypes can be edited, that is, they can be changed at runtime. Such as index, dictionary, etc.
Immutable data type is not editable, that is, it cannot be changed at runtime. Such as string, tuple, etc.
5. What is the difference between list and tuple?
Lists and tuples are both sequential data types that can store collections of objects in Python. The objects stored in both sequences can be of different data types. Lists are represented by square brackets [abc’, 6, 0.19′], while tuples are represented by parentheses (abc’, 5, 0.97′).
The main difference between list and tuple is the following:
- List data can be changed.
- Lists consume more memory.
- Lists are usually slower than tuples
- Example: list_1 = [10, ‘abc’, 20]
- Tuple data is immutable.
- Tuple consumes less memory compared to list.
- Tuples are faster than lists
- Example: tup_1 = (10, ‘abc’, 20)
6. How to delete a file using Python?
We can delete a file using the following methods:
- () os.unlink
7. What are decorators?
Decorators are very powerful and useful functions in Python, which help to add functionality to an existing function without changing the structure of the function. Decorators are represented by @decorator_name and are invoked in a bottom-up fashion.
8. What is the difference between set and dictionary?
Set is an unordered collection of data that is mutable and has no duplicate elements.
A dictionary is an unordered collection of data used to store data values. Elements in the dictionary are stored as keys and values.
9. What are Python modules?
Files containing Python code with the extension “py.” Python modules are called. These codes can be classes, functions, or variables that save programming time by providing predefined capabilities if needed.
Common and common modules in Python programming are:
- data time
10. What is a Python literal?
Literals refer to data that is passed to a variable or constant. Literals supported by Python are:
String: String values are placed between two “”. For example: “65383”
Numbers: Number literals supported in Python include the following.
- Integers: I=10
- Floating numbers: i=5.2
- Complex numbers: 1.73j
- Boolean numbers: These numbers are represented as True and False.
11. What is a Python Namespace?
Namespace is a naming system that is used to ensure the uniqueness of names and avoid naming conflicts. Here we have introduced some examples of Namespace:
- Local Namespace: It consists of local names inside a function that are temporarily created for calling the function and are deleted after the function returns.
- Global Namespace: Contains names of different modules used in the project.
- Built-in Namespace: Contains built-in Python functions and dedicated built-in names.
12. What is regression?
Regression is a supervised machine learning algorithm technique used to find correlations between variables and help predict the dependent variable (y) based on the independent variable (x). Regression is mainly used for forecasting, time series modeling, forecasting and determining the causal relationship between variables. Scikit library is used to implement regression and all machine learning algorithms.
Regression algorithms in machine learning are divided into 2 categories:
- Linear regression: It is used when the variables are continuous and numerical in nature.
- Logistic regression: It is used when the variables are continuous and categorical in nature.
13. What are Pandas?
Pandas is an open source Python library that supports data structures for data analysis and data manipulation. With its rich set of features, pandas is suitable for any role of data manipulation, whether it is related to implementing various algorithms or solving complex problems.
14. What is the lambada function?
A Lambda function is an anonymous function without a name. The lambada function is a small and limited function that has no more than one line. A lambda function can take any number of arguments, but it can only have one expression.
15. What is the difference between xrange() and range() function?
range() and xrange() are two functions that can be used to repeat a certain number of for loops in Python.
- In Python 3, xrange() is not supported. Instead, the range() function is used to iterate through for loops.
- The output of this function is a list.
- Using this function takes more memory because it keeps the entire list of repeating numbers in memory.
- The xrange() function in Python 2 is used to iterate through for loops.
- This function does not create a static list at runtime and returns a generator object.
- It takes less memory because it stores only one number at a time.
16. What is the map() function in Python?
The map() function in Python has two parameters: function and iterable. The map() function takes a function as an argument and then applies that function to all the elements of an iterable and is passed to it as another argument. Returns a list object of results.
17. Describe Django’s architecture.
Django is a web service used to build your web pages. Its architecture is as follows:
- Template: The front part of the web page or front end.
- Model: Backend and where the data is stored.
- View: interacts with Template and Model and maps it to URL.
- Django: Presents the page to the user.
18. What is the zip function?
The zip() function matches the elements of two or more lists.
19. Which database is supported by Python?
MySQL (Structured) and MongoDB (Unstructured) are prominent databases supported in Python.
20. What is PIP?
PIP stands for Python Installer Package, which provides an integrated interface for installing various Python modules. It is a command line tool that can search for packages over the Internet and install them without any user interaction.
21. What is a docstring in Python?
In Python, docstring means those strings that appear right after the function, method or module. You can use three quotes (“””) to define docstring.
22. Which of the following is not a correct command to create a collection in Python?
- set ([[1,2], [3,4], [4,5]])
- set ([1,2,2,3,4,5])
- Set ((1,2,3,4))
Answer: Set ([[1,2], [3,4], [4,5]])
23. What are data frames?
A dataframe refers to a two-dimensional mutable data structure or data that is aligned in tabular form with labeled axes (rows and columns).
24. What is Data Abstraction?
The process of defining data and functions in such a way that only essential details are visible and unnecessary implementations are hidden is called Data Abstraction.
25. What is monkey patching in Python?
In Python, the term monkey patching refers to dynamically changing a class or module at runtime.
26. What is self in Python?
Self represents an instance of the class. By using self we can access the features and methods of the class in Python. The self-function binds these properties to the given arguments.
27. What is the difference between append() and extend() methods?
Both append() and extend() methods are used to add elements to the end of the list.
- append(element): Adds the given element to the end of the list that calls the append() method.
- extend(another-list): Adds another list elements to the end of the list which calls the extension() method.