Android programming is currently considered one of the most popular skills in the digital world and programming in the world, and every year many people decide to start learning Android programming.

To start any path, we must know where it started what its history is, and what it is, but since there are many materials, podcasts, and videos on the internet about the history of Android, the formation of the central core, and of course its development. There is, I decided to give up on this topic and leave this theoretical stage and, of course, read to you, Instead, in this part, I will introduce you to important terms in the field of Android programming language.

For sure, the lack of a common language and understanding of important terms will make it difficult for you, dear students, to continue on the path. So, I recommend you to read the important concepts and terms of Android programming in full and enjoy it.

Software Development Kit (SDK)

SDK or Software Development Kit, which is referred to as a software development kit, is a set of tools designed and provided to programmers to increase the ease of programming in a specific environment or platform.

SDK allows the programmer to create a framework, platform, computer system, gaming console, and most importantly operating system for his software. SDK in Android is the same kit that Google provided to Android developers so that they can design their applications more easily.

Note 1: Before starting any work, you need to install the Android SDK on your system and implement your idea using the available tools.

Note 2: As an Android developer, if you plan to use Java, you must download the Java Development Kit or JDK. For this, you can do this from Google developers or the Java site. (Now you are also familiar with the concept of JDK.)

Native Development Kit (NDK)

The Native Development Kit allows programmers and users to run code written in C and C++ in their applications.

It should be noted that NDK is currently a subset of SDK and the programmer installs various software and tools at the same time when installing Android Studio (we will discuss it further) and SDK.

Note: The most important feature of NDK is in multimedia applications because the programmer can significantly improve the speed of program execution.


Gradle is one of the most common concepts and words used by Android programmers. Gradle means getting the output from the system (designed application).

One of the advantages of Gradle is its customization. So that you can enter your codes in your file and get the desired output easily.

Note: In Android Studio, there is an extension called Gradle, through which you can easily get output from your program. This plugin is written in groovy language, and this has made the work of the Android programmer very easy because there is no need to learn this programming language anymore. (One of the advantages of Android Studio)

Android Application ID (Manifest)

Android application ID or manifest, which is a very common term among programmers, basically shows the details about the identity of the application the manifest is a file among Android applications in which different information is expressed.

Manifest is a very sensitive file, of course, in the sense that any error in it can cause problems in the process of running an application. Inside the manifest, as mentioned, all the details of the application are placed, such as the theme, general skin, special commands, etc.

In the following, we will examine the packages and files that are included in the manifest and you should familiarize yourself with them.

Package name

The name of the package is different for all Android applications, like our fingerprints, and each application has its package name The name of the package is what other software such as Google Play or Cafe Bazaar uses to select and show the application. You use others.

This name is chosen by the programming team itself and is often a combination of three names.

Web service or API

Web service or Application Programming Interface is a common boundary between two separate services and systems. An API is basically code written by programmers that allows other applications to connect to and interact with it.

To make this concept more concrete for you, I will follow it with an example. For example, an application is programmed with a specific API, which means that this application will only run on an Android phone with a specific version. In simple language, the version that we refer to in common language for Android, for example, Android 10, is expressed in the form of API in a programming language.

Note: API in Android depends on SDK.

MinSdkVersion and TargetSdkVersion concepts

The programmer must set a minimum API in his application and the manifest so that the application cannot be run on lower APIs or lower versions of Android, this is MinsdkVersion.

On the other hand, although applications may work in higher or lower versions of Android, it is important to note that each application is designed for a specific version, this specific version is the Targetsdkversion.

Note: Programmers can set both of these changes through the manifest.


An activity refers to any page of an Android application. These pages are placed together in the program or the Android application and are transferred through different buttons, like a game that has a settings section, user account, game login, etc. An activity consists of two separate parts:

  • Class
  • XML

The codes written in the Java programming language, which are behind the curtain and the engine of an application, are placed in the class, and the part of the application that we are viewing and using is located in the XML.

An Android expert puts the relevant codes in Java or the same class and saves the appearance of the program, the placement of various elements, colors, etc. in the XML section.


Emulator is one of the most used parts in Android application design and is a basic requirement for application developers. As I mentioned in this article, application programmers take output from their app many times during design to see how the application works.

There are two basic ways for this: testing the application on a real device, using an emulator

If you are careful, almost all application designers have two monitors in front of them and one monitor is completely dedicated to the emulator section.

Note: Genymotion is one of the best simulator programs that have an acceptable speed and provide us with different devices for testing the application.

Android Studio also has this feature in its package, but the speed and power of Genymotion are much higher than the Google emulator.

Android studio and eclipse

Android Studio and Eclipse are used as two of the most famous and powerful Android development environments among programmers.

Although in the past eclipse was the first word in Android programming, Android Studio has been able to significantly overtake its competitor in recent years with various updates.

In the following, we discuss some of the advantages of Android Studio compared to Eclipse:

  • It is easier to find and fix errors in Android Studio.
  • Designing the user interface in Android Studio is much easier.
  • In the Android studio environment, the checking of RAM and processor consumption resources is very complete.
  • And …

Note: Of course, it should be noted that you must have a powerful system with high hardware features to use and run Android Studio on your system.

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