If you are interested in the topic of website design and want to start it from the ground up so that you can get all the features you want, it is better to first of all get familiar with the two sub-branches of website programming, i.e. back-end programming and front-end programming.

What is Back-end?

When we want to explain backend programming, it is better to start with its literal meaning. As is clear from its literal meaning, back-end programming means all those things that are done behind the scenes and the user does not see them. Backend generally consists of three parts: a server, an application and a database. For example, if you want to buy a device from a website, you open the site and interact with the frontend. When you enter information such as address, the site saves your information in its database. All the information you entered will remain on the server, and if you log in to the site later with the same user account, you can see all the information about the orders and addresses you entered.

We call the person who establishes the connection between the server and the database using different technologies a “Backend Developer”. Backend is a part of a website or software that is not visible to users. In other words, it is the core and brain of a site, which is responsible for controlling its logic. This part of the site is like a part of the iceberg that is under the water surface. The server side is directly related to the user side and gives life to the components designed in the user interface. The backend programmer should receive information from the database according to different purposes and display it to the user after processing if needed.

Back-end technologies generally include programming languages ​​such as PHP, Ruby, Python, etc. Also, in order to make these technologies easier, frameworks such as Ruby on Rails, Cake PHP, etc. are sometimes used to speed up program development.

Many people who are new to this field of work hear words like WordPress, Joomla, Drupal, etc. For example, WordPress is a very good example of front-end and back-end working together. Because WordPress is based on an open code framework based on the PHP programming language, it can be easily installed on a server with a database, and then the designers change the functions and appearance of the site using appropriate coding.

What is Front-end?

To explain the front end, like the back end, we start with its literal meaning. In Front End website design, it is called a part that can be seen by the user and interacts with it. The front end displays incomprehensible codes to users in a graphical and visual format to make it easier for them to use different parts of the site. In this section, information input forms, sounds, images, videos and generally anything else that can be understood by the user are placed. Frontend usually consists of two parts: website design and frontend web development.

In the web design department, designers use graphic software such as Photoshop or Adobe XD to design the appearance of the site. But the user interface development part is related to the implementation of the site’s appearance in the form of HTML, CSS and JavaScript code. The programming languages used at the front end are the user side or client side. Therefore, the code written on the frontend are processed and executed in the user’s browser. This means that the user has direct access to these codes and can view them. Front-end is directly related to the back-end and has a great impact on the user experience (UX).

In the past, if someone talked about development, it was generally related to the “Backend” department, but in recent years, this issue has changed a lot and we need to distinguish between someone who designs the site in graphic software and someone who converts it. It differentiates between HTML and CSS code. This issue became more serious when designers started using JavaScript and jQuery.

What do the Server Side and Client Side mean?

The words server side and user side were used many times in the text. For a better understanding, we will continue to explain these two concepts.

Client Side

Client side means languages that work on the user side. For example, we can say HTML, CSS, and JavaScript and… Client side languages. And the total work that these languages do is called web design or Front End Development.

Server Side

As the name of this term suggests, languages in this category are written to be used on servers and need a server to run. For example, languages like PHP or ASP.NET definitely need a server to run, which can be a real server in the online world or a server simulator or local host. The programming languages that run on the server side are called Server Side languages and the total work that these languages do is called Back End Programming or Back End Development.

What does full stack mean?

As we explained earlier, in the world of website design, a group of people design and code the part of the work that the user sees, and a group is responsible for writing the server-side code and the hidden part of the site. But in the meantime, there is another group of programmers who have both the ability to design web (front-end) and web programming (back-end). In fact, these people are the ones who can finish an almost big project alone. These people are called Full Stack programmers.

A full stack developer, as the word Full suggests, has all the skills needed to complete a project. In the sense that:

  • A full-stack developer can both design great skins for online services and be a good server-side developer.
  • A full-stack programmer, in addition to mastering web design and programming, must be able to be a professional problem finder (Debugger).
  • A full stack developer should have very good server management skills and also know a little about project management. Just knowing HTML, CSS, PHP, and MySQL cannot make you a full stack programmer!

As it was said, a full-stack programmer is someone who has several years of experience in each of the fields and is familiar with all the details of server-side and user-side programming, and you cannot consider yourself a full-stack programmer in the early years of your career.

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